When Does a .380 Beat a 9mm?

This is an image of a caliber comparison

Photo: author

You may have heard the phrase, “Friends don’t let friends carry mouseguns.” In fact, I’ve uttered it more than a few times myself over the years! The implication, of course, is that calibers below a certain threshold, arbitrary though it may be, are not suitable for protecting one’s life. What that threshold is, exactly, depends on one’s point of view. For some people, anything with a caliber that doesn’t start with “.4” is a mousegun, For others, low-powered cartridges like the .22 Long Rifle and.25 ACP get the nod. But for many, the lowly .380 ACP is the most common (and most derided) of the species.

Should it be?

The fact is that you probably...

Best Personal Defense Weapon

Just Because It’s Common Doesn’t Make It Wisdom

The common wisdom goes something like this: the .380 doesn’t have much stopping power, making it a less ideal choice than the next step up the ladder, the 9mm. I’ve even heard people say that if you were to shoot an attacker with a .380, all you’d succeed in doing is making him mad!

Since modern 9mm pistols are so small these days, often very close to the size of the lowly .380, most gun folks would say that it makes little sense to bother with the mouse cartridge. If you can get a more powerful round in the same-sized gun, they’ll ask, why bother with the smaller offerings?

It Isn’t As Weak As You Think

Let’s get the performance questions about the .380 ACP out of the way so we can have an intelligent discussion. While I’m not here to heap excessive praise on the .380, or even suggest that it should be your primary choice for carry, let’s start by looking at the data.

two rounds from handguns

Which round is which? Photo: author

The best database of handgun performance I’ve yet seen comes from Greg Ellifritz at Active Response Training. His results, compiled from hundreds of actual shootings over many years, show that while the .380 doesn’t work quite as well as the 9mm, .40 S&W, or .45 ACP in its job of stopping attackers, it’s also not that far off. In Ellifritz’s studies, the “major” calibers are pretty darned close to each other in terms of actual performance. Close enough, in fact, that they are in a statistical dead heat. The .380, on the other hand, is definitely not the performer that the bigger cartridges are. But the little .380 is still remarkably effective and a whole lot better than anything smaller. In fact, the difference between the .380 and the .40 S&W, to pick one at random, is less than the difference between the .380 and the .32 ACP.

Is the .380 half as good as the 9mm? If the data is accurate, it’s actually better than that.

Facts, as John Adams pointed out, are stubborn things. The important point here is that, despite what we feel or have been told, the .380 ACP is not the complete weakling everyone would have you believe. I’ve personally met two people who successfully defended themselves with a .380. Both incidents were over within three rounds, and both defenders emerged unscathed. The same could not be said of their attackers, neither of whom are with us any longer.

The fact is that you probably can successfully defend yourself with this particular “mousegun” caliber. The question is, why would you want to?

Balance of Speed and Precision

The answer is more complicated than you might think, and revolves around your balance of speed and precision. The target dictates the level of precision you need to reach, and that part of the shooting equation never changes. The variable is how fast you can deliver rounds into that area. The more recoil the gun/cartridge combination produces, the slower you’ll be able to shoot into that level of precision. This is the balance of speed (your ability to shoot multiple rounds accurately) and precision (the area of the target you must hit).

The less recoil you are forced to deal with, the faster you’ll be able to shoot to any given level of precision. That translates into being able to deliver more rounds on target in a specific time frame. In the case of an attacking criminal, the more rounds you can put into his vital areas, the sooner he’s going to stop being a threat to your life.

So What If It Hurts?

This is why so many major defensive shooting trainers have come to embrace the 9mm over the .40 S&W and .45 ACP: you’re able to deliver more statistically identical performing rounds in any given period of time to any given level of precision. It’s a great tradeoff, because there’s almost no downside. Given a choice between shooting the bad guy three times with one caliber or five times with a different caliber that has been shown to give statistically indistinguishable performance, I know which I’m going to choose!

Where does the .380 ACP come into this?

If we take two guns of roughly the same size and weight, one in .380 and one in 9mm, the 9mm will recoil more than the .380. This is to be expected. A markedly heavier bullet, fired at a higher velocity, will produce substantially more recoil and will more obviously affect your balance of speed and precision. It’s also going to be painful to practice with, which means people might not do so.

a small Walther 380 acp

This small Walther-esque .380 ACP has an aluminum frame and would be much more difficult to control if chambered in 9mm. Loaded with high-performance ammunition, it can be surprisingly effective.
Photo: author

“It doesn’t matter,” people often say, “because in a real fight, the adrenaline dump will mask the pain.” That’s partially true, but it’s also immaterial. When you’re in the midst of dealing with an attack, the reduction in blood flow to your hands (along with the chemical changes in your body) will likely result in an increase in your pain threshold. You probably won’t feel as much pain in your hands or joints when the rounds go off as when you’re practicing on the range. That much is true. The issue, though, isn’t your pain level. The issue is that the recoil doesn’t go away; it just doesn’t hurt as much. It still affects your control of the gun, and while that heavy recoil won’t bother you as much, it will still present the same level of physical disruption in your shooting. Your balance of speed and precision isn’t going to get better just because your pain receptors have been temporarily numbed. The gun’s recoil will still affect how quickly you can shoot to any given level of precision. Just because you can’t feel it doesn’t mean that recoil is no longer an issue!

This is the root of the decision we face with the choice between 9mm and the .40 S&W. In that case, the performance of the rounds is much closer—a statistical dead heat, remember—so it becomes a choice of shooting more bullets of equal effect than fewer bullets. More bullets win, because it’s the number of rounds we can get on target that have the greatest effect on an attacker.

Making a Logical Choice

The recoil effects in a small gun are profound. A number of micro 9mm pistols I’ve tested range from quite unpleasant to downright uncontrollable in a realistic string of fire. A gun of the same size but loaded with softer-shooting .380 projectiles is much easier to control and results in more rounds landing accurately on target in a shorter period of time. We’re back to the idea of shooting more rounds to any given level of precision.

Of course, the difference in this choice is that the .380 is definitely not at the same performance level of the 9mm. We’re giving up some effectiveness, though as I pointed out, it might not be as much as we’ve been led to believe. But when we factor in the controllability of the gun, the smart choice for some people may very well be the smaller round.

As mentioned earlier, I’ve fired some micro 9mm guns that were very difficult to control. In fact, I tested one such gun that squirmed in my tightest grasp so much that the first round was on target, the second was on the right side of the target, and the third was off target! Admittedly I’m no Jerry Miculek, but I’m used to shooting very heavy-recoiling handguns at speed, and this particular pistol was impossible for me to control in a realistic string of fire. No one else on the range that day could either, and these weren’t newbies but experienced shooting instructors!

Still, I was the only one who came away with a negative opinion of the test gun. If I shot sedately, as everyone else who tested and proclaimed the gun to be a “winner” did, it was controllable. It wasn’t until I shot it in a realistic string of fire (rapid multiple rounds) that it showed its less desirable traits. In my hands it was just difficult to control, but in the hands of someone who doesn’t have my experience and skill, the results might be tragic: missed shots and endangered bystanders.

The problem is that these are the kinds of guns too often sold to newcomers. They’re touted as small, light, and “packing a punch.” Buyers are told they shouldn’t settle for a “weak” .380 ACP of similar size when they can step up to a 9mm in the same (or nearly the same) package. It’s a good sales tactic, I must admit!

Still, I caution people to think very carefully about that neat new subcompact. “It packs more power in a smaller, lighter frame” is seductive advertising copy, and a lot of gun reviewers get very excited about such things, but it’s important to think through the ramifications of that choice.

This is an image of a .380 pistol being held by its owner demonstrating combat accurate hits—Best personal defense weapon

This .380, which its owner can control, making rapid combat-accurate hits, is a better choice for her than a similar-sized 9mm that she may not be able to control. Photo: author

Am I Saying the .380 Is Always a Better Choice?

No, I’m not. But in some very specific cases, it may be. The shooting world should stop and think about the end use of the gun, not how much raw power it produces.

Back when I was of the “More power!” persuasion, I met a lady who carries a Browning BDA. The BDA is a double-stack .380 ACP pistol holding 13 rounds. It is, as you might expect, fairly large and heavy for a .380. At the time the micro-9mm fad hadn’t yet started, but even then there were a number of 9mm pistols available that were the size of the BDA and lighter to boot. I actually tried to steer her away from her BDA and to one of the 9mm guns, but she wouldn’t hear of it. She’d tried them and, due to some weakness in her hands, simply couldn’t control them (even with my expert instruction).

For her, being able to deliver all 13 rounds on target in a very short time frame (which she could do) was a significant advantage over delivering only a few 9mm rounds. My mistake was not recognizing that. Thankfully, I failed to get her to change. She knew her needs better than I did, and if we were to have that discussion today, I would simply help her become as competent with her gun as I possibly could. I understand the issues better and have reined in my macho opinions.

If I had to choose between a micro 9mm and a .380 in the same size and weight class, I might choose the smaller round if the difference in controllability were significant. In the case of the test gun I mentioned earlier, I’d frankly rather have a .380! Yes, it was that bad. Yet the gun sells well and the manufacturer reports they can’t keep up with demand. I’m positive that many of those buyers are making a bad decision, and probably for the wrong reasons.

Before you sneer at that lowly mousegun, stop and really think about the job it is intended to do. Understand the real task: to get combat-accurate hits, with an effective bullet, on target as fast as you can get them. In some cases, that “little” .380 might be better at the task than anything else.

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754 Responses to “When Does a .380 Beat a 9mm?”

  1. Gene

    Excellent article. Thanks for the truth – more control of the weapon gives more on target hits.

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  3. North Carolina

    I can handle a .45 other than recoil induced time getting back on target. I picked up a G25 -G19 sized – 15rd .380 acp for the exact reasons stated in the article

    If the unfortunate situation arise, I desire control , accuracy, and precision to 1) deliver the most rounds ON TARGET & 2) minimize or better yet eliminate off target shots, which put bystanders, family and friends at higher risk. Say what you will, I’m sold on .380. Great article!

  4. JGunter

    380 acp is very good for self defense. I take the advice of Tim Sundles and carry hard cast flat nose in mine. No expansion but plenty of penetration.

  5. Dotty

    I absolutely LOVE my M&P 380 EZ Slide by Smith & Wesson. Easy to handle and the recoil is very manageable for me. I am a female who is in her 1st year of shooting. My instructor trained and continues to give me tips on shooting my 380.

  6. Tom

    I am delighted reading this article that I went with the S & W 380 full size rather than much smaller Ruger 380.. I have not done much shooting in my 69 years, but advice from a very experienced shooter insisted that a 9 mm was a very wrong choice for me as I would never be able to afford the time or money to hang out at the range and put thousands of rounds into targets to one shot stop anyone. THANKS!!!

  7. Branski

    One of the few articles by gun experts or gun toters , that ive seen, which was written in completely correct grammatical English, with no spelling mistakes. Good for you. More women and less machos please


    I have always preferred precision over the”spray & pray” method employed by many shooters , including LEOs. In a hot confrontational situation, most people will get the adrenaline surge and mag dump in the vicinity of their target. Adrenaline and muscle memory do numb the pains, they also numb your ability to control your weapon. This phenomenon is why you hear of 150 rounds fired at a suspect with only 1 or 2 hits
    A .380 is just a 9mm with a lighter charge. Less recoil is more on target shots

  9. Vincent

    Nine mm pistols are available in relatively small sizes from several manufacturers that hold 17 rounds in the magazine. I will always choose a 9mm over a .380.

  10. Ron W.

    As a born-again .380 carrier, there is another factor in the debate, which is ammo selection. The ammo makers are coming up with some pretty good defensive ammo, such as Underwood, Hornady, etc. Recent government studies have shown the fluid dynamic fluted solid brass bullets are very effective.
    Great article. Thanks

  11. Linda Murphy

    I just bought a Glock 25. They finally started making them for the US in late December 2023. It is the size of the Glock 19 but in .380. Holds 15 rounds and shoots very smooth! I absolutely love it!

  12. Michael Pate

    I was shot with a .25 with about 15′ between me and the 4 , males attempting to rob me. He fired 3 times and hit me in the left shoulder blade with 1 round which punctured all the way through the shoulder blade, bounced off the ball and socket joint in my left shoulder breaking it, punctured my lung at an angle hitting my second rib and breaking it and bouncing it back into my lung where is remains. If I had my gun on me at the time I was fully capable of returning fire. It felt like taking a hit from the bat of major league baseball player across my shoulder when it hit. It almost knocked me off balance but I was at an all out run when he fired. I ran 4 blocks and still walked into the ER and back to a room.

    • North Carolina

      I think one point the article makes is that had your attacker had a 9mm or larger you may not have been hit at all as 1 for 3 with a .25 at 5 yards is ridiculous. Especially, if the round you took wasn’t the 1st one fired.

      Regardless, your input is extremely valuable and certainly glad you survived the encounter. People are crazy.

  13. John

    Loved your comment. It seems that most on the right assume that very few, if any on the left carry daily.

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  14. Roger Redden

    I have a Bersa .380 DLX with a 3.5 inch barrel. I just got it. I am an experienced shooter, but I wonder about the recoil of this firearm. Can it be adjusted for a smoother, quicker action and not compromise the integrity of the firearm?

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  15. Sonny van Gelder

    Center mass is a larger target, but may not be an effective choice with a small caliber. If you are in danger within 10 ft. aim for the head or neck and fire 2 or 3 quick bursts.

    • Johnny S

      9mm pistol? Pretty accurate. .22 carbine? I’ll empty a 25 round magazine into the same target
      In a couple of blinks. Think about it.

      • Eddie

        Great article.
        I carry a Sig p365 XL and my daughter carries a SW 380 bodyguard. Rapid fire at the range and we are both as accurate s each other with our carry weapons of choice. I would rather her hit her intended target than make a big hole to their right. Thanks again

    • Ron

      Much more likely to get a good placement in the chest and they’ll be plenty of time to get off three rounds, which should be more than enough stopping power

  16. Nolan

    Been searching for an article like this .
    I just love Desert eagles.
    Buy a tool for your safety at

    • Blake

      Nolan I agree with you, 50 cal’s are awesome, but in a defensive situation? With no ear pro? I feel I would be deaf after that. Still deaf is better than dead but still sucks.

  17. Joe

    I’m 71 and I’ve always had a 1911 .45. But my hands aren’t that young anymore and had to change because of weight, recoil and racking. I found the S&W MP .380 EZ. This gun is beautiful. It has solved all my problems, but the most important one was being able to rack it. It is so easy to do. Even my wife is able to rack it with ease. S&W has really helped with the public market that has hand or arm problems with their line of EZ pistols. My wife even carries a S&W 22 Compact in her purse because she loves the she can handle the it with her bad hands. True, it’s a 22 but she says that if she can land a full mag because of recoil and weight and comfortably then she feels safe. Which she can. I’m now a firm believer in the .380 and will probably never go back to a .45 again. To use your gun you need to be very comfortable with it and not have a single doubt about it.


    Carried a glock 40 cal. for many years on the police dept in milwaukee,, ggreat gun,, but for concealment after retirement i went with the glock 42 .380 with 9 shot clip. Go to the range 2x a year firing 300 rounds each time. I use precision one ammo which has a penetration of 15 inches,, not for practice though as too expensive. Never had a jam and i am amazed how i can put very fast round after round into a 6 inch circle at 15 feet. I would have no problem going into a conflict with this weapon. Fits into my holster and pocket with no problem. The .40 cal was great too,, but too large to carry concealed.9mm also too large,, the .380 will work great with the right ammo. check it out….

  19. a

    People love to call .380 a woman round or call it weak or a bunch of other different euphemisms, but I’ll guarantee you nobody will post a video of themselves getting shot with one.
    A lot of people think that using ‘underpowered’ rounds is ‘less manly’. One, underpowered for what? Most self-defense occurs at close ranges. Two, the caliber you use doesn’t matter if you can’t actually hit the target. Using rounds that you can barely place on target because they have ‘mo powa’ is irresponsible, because you WILL be responsible for bullets that miss your target and hit unintended targets. if life was a videogame, sure, go for the most powerful thing you can get your hands on, but pulling out a 10 millimeter in a crowded venue for self-defense is extremely irresponsible and that extra power will work against you because the recoil will make it HARDER to hit the target, and the extra power will likely make the bullet go through the target and hit something else.

    You have to match the tool to the circumstance. Where a 10mm would shine is somewhere in a forest where not many people are around and you may need to take out massive wild animals.

  20. Bryan

    Anyone that doesn’t believe the .380 is a good defensive round is watching far too many action movies….380 pistols have doled out countless dirt naps since 1908…

  21. JM

    Little Colt mustang .380 (the real old version) saved both my wife and I when an armed intruder broke in to our home. One round to the head ended the matter. My favorite gun to this day and will never part with “Sam”. I completely agree with this article. It’s not the caliber its putting rounds on the target accurately and quickly.

    • Ken Wade

      Within 15 yards, my 4foot 10inch, 95 pound Wife can put 3 rounds in 3 seconds in a10 inch circle with Her little Colt.

  22. James

    I saw a youtube vidio in which a guy laid out a slab of pork ribs attached to an upright piece of plywood, secured an inch thick of pork roast to the ribs, put a piece of flannel from a shirt on top of that, and a piece cut from a blue jean jacket on the outside. The set-up’s intent was to represent a perp coming at you in fall or winter clothing. The .380 was fired from a typical short barrelled small semi-auto. All the layers got full penitration and the individual rib bones which were hit had an amazing level of damage. The new Ruger LCP MAX comes with a double stack 10 round mag and you can purchase a 12 round that will give a place to grip with your pinky finger. But the 12 round makes it print pretty clearly in your front blue jeans pocket while the 10 round makes the pistol almost invisable. There is no saftey, it comes with a pocket holster, add + 1 round if you carry one in the tube. I paid a little under $400. and the ammo is available and pretty reasonable in defense or target loads

  23. JV

    I have heard people make fun of smaller caliber guns but I remind them, plenty of people have had their lives ended by .22 caliber guns. Plus, I have never seen anyone that derides smaller calibers put their money where their mouth is by volunteering to stand still and let me shoot them with my .380. My guess is that is due to them actually knowing that no matter the caliber, any firearm is deadly.

  24. James Roberts

    Interesting take on a question that has bothered me more with age and failing health. Never jad to shoot or stab anyone despite some serious street violence (They wanted money

    • James Roberts

      Interesting. I preferred revolvers because they don’t go out of battery in grappling situations, but perhaps I should change to something with more firepower and less recoil. Payday muggings seem to have gone out of style.

  25. Glenn

    In a couple of seconds they put all seven rounds from my Ruger LC380 into and through through a 4×10 piece of lumber. I think that’s plenty powerful enough to defend with.

    I am 6 ft 2 and weigh about 280 lb. Controlling those rounds in a couple of seconds was no trouble. I love the pistol and I’m currently learning to reload for it.

  26. Jeannie Clark

    I’ve been teased for having the 380, a girly gun they called it! I agree with your observations. I am older 5’2″, 110 lbs with weak wrists, I find my Beretta 380 to be exactly as you described. I bought it for self defense, it is easy to handle and I am not nervous or intimidated by it. I find I am more accurate with this pistol therefore more accurate and confident. Thanks for vindication my 380!

  27. Andy Haveard

    Best, most realistic article I’ve read. Been studying articles and videos for months trying to decide what best for cc for me. My 1911 lives in my glovebox more than on my belt for obvious reasons. Reviews and videos on ruger security 380 have been mostly positive and rapid accurate shots win the debate over any other factor in the realm of self defense concealed carry. Period. A macho ego and a lack of control have put many a man in their grave. Accuracy comes second only to situational awareness in the real world. Personal self defense in real life , not target shooting at 50 yards. Thanks for a great article.

  28. Jeff

    You can make up the difference of stopping power with self defense cartridges designed to spread the force on impact and/or fragment, instead of just maiming with target rounds. My P238 runs the Winchester PDX1 ammo smoothly. I prefer my 380 for its speed, accuracy, lack of recoil, and I feel better knowing I put others at less risk if I have to defend myself under duress with a heavier caliber that can accidentally kill someone through a wall or something.

  29. Ron Koehler

    Thank you! This is just what I needed. I am a 72 year old about to purchase my first lethal gun. I have a Byrna that I have been using for target practice as well as for how to hold a gun and use the sights. I’m able to do this in my back yard.
    Your article was perfect in helping me make a decision. A .380 ACP make sense to me as I’ve been concerned about recoil being a senior citizen. Thanks again.

  30. Hoosier Carry

    As I’m aging, I’m nturall going to lighter weapons. got the 380 EZ for my wife who still doesn’t want anything to do with guns. So I tried it out myself and like it. But I also reload for all my calibers and yes, even my defense rounds. If I can’t trust my reloads, then I shouldn’t be reloading is my motto. I can make up some pretty wicked loads in 380 that are over 1100 fps with hollow points. That’s 9mm territory. Yes a slightly snappier recoil but still not as bad as a 9mm with comparable velocities. I do test all my loads unscientifically on water-filled target and can get a good idea of the power from each caliber when the targets are all the same (1 gal water jug). And YES, the 380 is a very capable round when loaded hot with expandable projectiles.

  31. Shawn

    Thank you . I thought i was shortchanging my self bying a 380, it doesnt sau thunder and it is a 2 tone. I have a week thumb for relasing the slide back to its resting place and i can have the hammer which i love and the safety is easily flipped for me and the best part and why i wanted another bersa as in the past was because it has a fixed barrel.
    I do not like or ever wil like the flip ups,so Hollow point high gram bullet i dont think anyone is going to take it away after being riddled with it. Lol. Revolvers are always best and safest in my opinion . GOD,GUNS AND MORE GUNS.

    • Jerome

      I’ve carried a Bersa off and on for years. I have a regular 380 Thunder and a 380 Thunder Plus. Highly accurate little pistols, I’d trust my life with either one of them without hesitation

    • Phillip

      Bersa Thunder Plus – 15 +1 small gun with just enough weight to stifle recoil. My EDC for 6 + years

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  32. Gideon Rockwell

    For years one of my EDCs was a Walther PPK/s in 380. I loaded it with CCI hollow points and felt as well armed as if I were carrying a J Frame 38 Special. The Springfield Hellcat took it’s place as my EDC because it is close in size and holds 11 rounds of 9 M/M. Still love the old Walther though.

  33. Mike Smith

    380 would not be my choice for self defense, but it is for my wife. I’m a Firearms Instructor and I shoot a lot, and I have taught my wife how to shoot. We started with a 22 which she shoots well, then I moved her to a 9mm, small semi-automatic for self defense. My wife had a hard time with the recoil (she is in her 60’s) and working the slide. However, for target shooting, she learned how to shoot it well. I then tried a her with a heavy, snub-nose 38, which she liked better. However, she fell in love with a 380 semi-automatic that was very easy to work. She is a good shooter, but with this gun she does much better with self defense drills. I would much rather see her with this 380, knowing that she can handle this gun well and that the proper defensive round will allow her to protect herself.

    • percy

      the 380 might be a mid baby but it do the job dam good when you are hit in the right spot i shot the 9mm
      and its kicks when shot but when u shot the 380 it fast shoting with out that hard kick back so the 380 is the little brother of the 9mm

  34. Joedy Pennington

    I have changed from my HK P7 PSP 9MM to my Beretta 84FS 380 and i am carrying a Combination of Federal PDR’s and Cor bon JHP personal defense rounds. What i like about the Beretta it is 14 rounds plus an extra Magazine of 13, control is everything. I am glad to see this article it backs up what i have heard and knew.

  35. JonsOn

    I have a Ruger LCP Custom with the red trigger, a Ruger LCP Max and a Beretta 84 all in .380 ACP or 9mm short in the case of the Beretta. The Beretta shoots great, has a smooth trigger but is heavy. The LCP Custom is light but has a heavy trigger and only holds 7 rounds. The LCP Max has a nice trigger, holds 10 or 12 rounds and is fairly light. I carry it in the summer when a smaller gun can better be concealed. I carry a S&W Shield 9 PC in the winter as the 9mm will go through heavy clothing a little better and concealment is easier with heavier clothing. To those who think that the .380 is not up to the task I wonder if they would be willing to be a test dummy. I mean the .380 ACP won’t hurt them, right?

  36. Denny Allen

    I had a .380 Walther PPK years ago, but got rid of it because it was so flippy. It would sometimes flip up and catch the exiting spent casing. That was when I was still strong and athletic. I can still handle .357s, .40s, etc. But I don’t like blow-back actions (except on a .22). A 9mm Sig P360 is much less flippy, for me at least, than the blow-back .380 was. I think it’s recoil-operated like the 9mm version is. The same would go for any other .380–the reduction in recoil will be most noticeable if one gets a .380 pistol that is recoil operated instead of blow-back. Some might argue that the blow-back pistol, with its fixed barrel, is inherently more accurate. But i don’t see that as much of a consideration for self-defense at .380 range. And any advantage in accuracy, in my experience, is negated by the excessive barrel flip in a quick string of shots.

    • Scott Puckett

      Mr. Allen, I agree with your statements completely. However, your explanation of action types is incorrect. Virtually all semi-auto pistols are recoil operated. The type action I believe you meant to refer to are those that are locked breech actions. As opposed to blowback actions, these actions have the “breech” locked until the pressure drops enough to allow safe movement of the action.

      • Austin

        The Walther PPK is a blowback, which is why it has more recoil compared to other .380s of similar size.

        While most semi auto pistols are locked breech, the PPK is a notable exception.

      • Dylan

        Denny is correct in describing the actions. The actions are named based on how the empty cases exit the chamber. “Recoil Operated” are locked breech. The rearward momentum (recoil) of the slide pulls the empty case from the chamber after the pressure has dropped. In a “Blow-back”, the case itself pushes the slide open, and the case literally blows itself out of the chamber. Blow-backs only need extractors to manually pull cartridges from the chamber. They have no function when firing the gun, except to maybe guide the case to the ejector. If recoil is understood as the rearward motion of the gun when firing, then the rearward motion of the empty cartridge isn’t also considered recoil.

  37. Ron Tiller

    I agree. I see too many students in my classes who have purchased the “concealable” micro 9mm guns who have difficulty controlling them, especially, on average, women. I will always suggest “try it before you buy it:.

  38. Stephen

    Grant, forgive me for saying…but you started out saying “let’s look at the statistics” and then proceeded to give us your opinions and experiences without any real statistics. While I am no expert, I do carry both 9mm and .40 on a regular basis. I am getting up in age and have given more thought to the .380. This is why I read through your article. And as I opened…I was looking for statistics. Sincerely, Stephen.

  39. Tom

    Loved the training on the 380 vs 9mm. I have all the above mentioned calibers and feel the same way. It’s not always to have the bigger gun that makes yo a good shooter, itsthegun you shoot the best and most accurate that makes you a good shooter.

  40. Scott

    You need to get off the stopping power high horse. Civilians don’t have have the job to “stop” someone. A civilian may have that at home, but a civilian’s job is to break engagement. A .22 caliber will break off most encounters, because most criminals are cowards. And civilians shoot .22s better, which hitting with anything is better than missing with a big “stopping” power bullet.

  41. Bemused Berserker

    How many cartridges out there, can lay claim to starting a War? Only the “Lowly” .380 ACP 9mmcan claim that macabre honor. It was two bullets from a FN Model 1910, chambered in .380 ACP that ended the lives of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophia, thus the spark that ignited the Great War, was struck by the “Lowly” .380 ACP. We also mustn’t forget, that John Moses Browning developed the .380 ACP, and introduced it in 1908 and the first Pocket Auto chambered for the cartridge, the Colt Model of 1908.
    I carried my .380 for nearly 25 years. It was retired to Range Baby status only because of my aging eyes, as I began having difficulty seeing the sights in Low Light conditions. I honestly never felt undergunned that entire time, because I knew the gun, and what its limits were so well. Originally, I carried it with Federal Hydroshocks, but when Hornady released their Critical Defense line in .380, I switched to it, as it performed better in Ballistic Gel than the Hydroshock.
    I’ve carried everyday now for 31 years. In that time I’ve never had to use my gun. I pray I never have to, but I’ll still train as if I’ll need it a minute from now.

  42. Mike

    I bought the Diamondback db9. It kicks like a mule and bites like a crocodile! Very difficult to control.

  43. Anon E Mous

    You didn’t explain the difference between .380 ACP and 9mm Kurt. “9mm Kurt” translates into English as “9mm Short”.

    • Kurt

      The German word for short is “kurz”, not Kurt. But thanks for mentioning me by name. LOL.
      9mm x 17mm is 9mm kurz and 9mm x 19mm is 9mm Luger

  44. Bill

    I agree getting rounds on target is essential. The problem I see is the type of clothing worn by the attacker, making hits by bullets ineffective and the attacker being able to advance and neutralize the shooter before the attacker can be subdued. Hollow points are notorious about getting clothing inbedded in the hollow cavity and not expanding. Bullets from a mouse gun require greater precision , as they need to be delivered to the head. But I do agree, if that is the tool then learn to use it effectively. One needs to remember pistol bullets travel through interior walls very easily and can even exit the home to penetrate the neighbors walls. So whatever you choose to shoot be aware, in an emergency shoot to protect one home, where everyone is located including neighbors homes.

  45. Dave S

    Sorry Rob, not a premium member but do read the free stuff. My wife has arthritis issues and couldn’t handle a Glock 9. Got her a Bersa Thunder double stack in 380 and she puts them center with minimal practice. I also have an AMT pocket 380 stainless that I carry in the summer when I don’t have enough cover for my full size XD40. It’s heavy enough to give quick follow shots on target. I’d be curious to see a chronograph of 380 and 9 out of short barrels. Bet they’re closer than anyone would guess. Yeah, 3-380’s on target is way better than 3 near misses with a 44 magnum.

  46. Gerald Lickey

    Thank you for this great information on the .380. I know going into this that it was a light round, but I am looking for great rounds on target. The more rounds on target the sooner the attack is over. I have both 9mm and .380 which I do see the difference in power vs speed. Thank you for this information.

  47. Skye

    I have a .380 Bersa CC as well as a 9mm and several revolvers. For all of the reasons mentioned, I prefer to carry the .380. For me, a concealable 9mm is too hard to control consistently.

    • Michael

      That’s because there is no difference. The 9mm Kurtz is just what they call .380 ACP in Europe. They are literally the same cartridge.

  48. Mark Sejman

    I have a 380 for basic canceled carry. With JHP, good enough stopping power at close range with a lower blow-through possibility. If I need further down-range ability, say hiking or cycling, I carry 9mm and 45mm, also in JHP.

  49. William A. Ehmig

    I sold my Sigma 365XL for this very reason. Single shots 2-3 seconds apart were not bad but really rapid fire was spray and pray.

  50. Brian

    Shooting a stationary target is one thing , shooting a moving target is another .in my house the average distance for shooting a bad guy is ten feet, a stationary bad guy is no longer stationary after the first shot

  51. Geroncio Ajoc jr

    This is an eye opener to those shying away from .380 i owned one and it is easy to control….

  52. john voorhis

    I am retired Army and former L.E. I shoot competitive IDPA and have had real world experience in deploying my weapon. I carry a Glock 23 as my main CCW and my jacket gun always has a Ruger LCP max 12+1=13 rounds of 380 ACP. I wear it when I am doing a quick run to the store etc. I know just what a 380 can do with a JHP and properly placed rounds. It’s LETHAL. my favorite round is the 10mm/40 S&W. then 9MM/45ACP. but make no mistake, the 380 acp will do the trick and do it well.

  53. Stanley Rogers

    I own a Walters PK380 and love the feeling of that gun. I’ve had operations on both of my hands that makes both of my S&W M&P’s hurts mewhen i shoot them. You are correct in more shots from a lighter weight round.

  54. David bachman

    Yes. The 380 for me is better than micro nines for all the reasons stated. Hate the snap of the little9s. I have read that 380s have a good reputation as 1shot stops. I guess the 9 is more powerful for longer distance but aren’t ranges for confrontations close in. Shoot the pistol that you can shoot best still is good wisdom. But to carry I‘lol stick to my 80’s. I

  55. notes

    This is exactly why I got a 308 for my daughter and wife to keep in the house. Neither one are experienced shooters, and I didn’t want them to be scared off by too much gun. Doesn’t do any good to have a gun for protection if you can’t keep putting rounds on target till it runs dry

  56. sala

    Excellent article! I’m recommending this article on our FB page. ~ Pastor Dave, The Patriot’s Pastor, former Peace Officer.

  57. Tim

    No one here will stand in front of a .22 short, much less a .380. If carrying a .380 is what you need to do, get good with it through practice and it will serve you well.

  58. Harold Shelton

    Just got my carry permit I would like to test fire multiple guns to see which one is best suited for me to carry any suggestions to where I should start something in the revolver line

    • Mark Sejman

      Go to a local range… they will have guns you can rent to try out. Yes they want you to buy from them, and I would suggest you do that as it establishes a relationship with them.

    • Skye

      As a handgun instructor, I strongly endorse your considering s revolver. One that I really like is the Ruger LCR. chambered in .357 magnum but, and this is important, load it with .38 special ammunition. Ruger also makes the LCR in a .38 version, but it is too light and hard to control. The .357 is just enough heavier that it is reasonable to shoot with .38s. Shoot it even once with a .357 and you will wish you hadn’t! Ad clarificatuon, it is perfectly acceptable to shoot .38s in a gun chambered for .357. But DO NOT SHOOT .357 IN A GUN CHAMBERED FOR A .38!

  59. vincent

    Well written article. I have a .380 in my carry “wardrobe” as well as several other calibers. I have never felt the .380 was a lesser round to protect my family or myself.

  60. 380 ACP

    Great article! I’m a big fan of 380 ACP for CCW and personal defense. Don’t get me wrong shooting a 9mm is great and all, but when you have to defend yourself(most likely in pretty close range). It ofc takes more practice to use 380 since shot placement does matter with less powerful round, but so does any gun.

  61. Miguel

    Would have been nice (and helpful) to have provided some ballistics of various 9mm and .380 rounds…especially the best defense loads! Otherwise insightful and helpful article!

    • Bemused Berserker

      If you have the chance, check out the Ballistic Gelatin Testing on Lucky Gunner’s web page. In it, they give a pretty good data run on several brands of defensive ammo in most of the popular calibers. They also tell you which loads meet the FBI’s specs for bullet penetration and bullet expansion, and which ones fail to meet, meet, and exceed those standards.
      It’s difficult to start ballistics discussions in an article like this one, simply because there are so many Personal Defense offering by many different manufacturers on the market these days. Good Authors try to avoid Brand Bias, and it’s hard to avoid that when making ballistic comparisons.
      As someone who’s carried for many years, my best advice is not to get stuck on caliber or brand of pistol, until you have the chance to fire several different calibers and different pistols. What fits my hand and what I can control and shoot accurately with, may not be what works best for you in caliber or gun. If there’s a range in your area that rents guns, that’s one of the best ways to try different models and calibers. Some people love Glocks, personally, I don’t like Glock’s trigger, even the newer 5th generation is too sloppy for me, but that’s a personal preference, so don’t take my word as the final authority, or anyone else’s for that matter. All of the Personal Defense Loads by the major and some minor manufacturers are capable rounds. What feeds best without fail in your gun and what you can control is what matters. I like the performance of Hornady’s Critical Duty +P in the two guns I now use for carry, one a SIG P365 in 9 mm, the other a Walther PPQ M2 in .40 S&W (I carry the SIG in warm weather, and the Walther in cold as it’s full size). The Critical Duty feeds flawlessly in either gun, and I’ve no problems controlling either.
      If you’re new at shooting, be cautious with the micro 9s like the SIG P365. It’s a handful for some that are new, because micros don’t have much weight to aid in taming the recoil (though it is available in .380 as well, which doesn’t recoil as much). Of course, if you have no issue with the recoil of a micro 9, then by all means go that way if it fits your needs.
      Good luck in your search, and don’t be afraid to ask questions. There’s no sin in being new to this, and dismiss any snob that disses your questions.

  62. Joe

    Over 49 years ago we carried a 380 as a backup gun. This how we felt about it. It was similar to the 38s. The 38 came in two different variations. There was the 38 special and the 38 round. The special round was larger than the 38 round. We used the same comparison with the 380 and 9 mm. Basically all gun barrels look extremely large when looking down one. It still boils down to shot placement regardless of caliber. If someone has a better shot placement with a 380, then they might be better off carrying one.

  63. David

    Excellent article! I’m recommending this article on our FB page. ~ Pastor Dave, The Patriot’s Pastor, former Peace Officer.

  64. Mark A

    Good article. I carry a chambered Sig P238 on a regular basis. Much more concealable than my Sig P226 MK25. When I am at the range both are accurate. With the P238 I experience less fatigue after shooting 50-100 rounds. I always carry it chambered so it is ready to go.

  65. Bill

    .380 beats 9mm when it’s the firearm an individual has because he/she wasn’t willing to carry something bigger. First rule “have a gun”

  66. David Nissen Kahn

    This is a valid, cogently presented, thoughtful analysis, albeit now eight years old. It begs a couple of thoughts:

    First, all small, light pistols and revolvers are relatively more difficult to shoot, irrespective of chambering and cartridge. I have relatively small hands (size seven surgical gloves), so the newish wave of “baby nines” are a fairly good fit for me and manageable. That said, I’ve found them harder to control, as Mr. Cunningham says, and less facile to run their controls, especially with magazine exchanges. That’s doubtless idiosyncratic, but I’ll bet that I’m not unique. I decided continue with whatever Glock 19 sized guns are called now. In fact, I’ve adopted the Shadow Systems MR920L as my daily AIWB pistol. It’s butt dimensions that arbitrate concealability, much more than than barrel/slide length, which is why full-sized stocks on little short-barreled revolvers kill their raison d’être, concealability. FWIW, there’s an excellent, extremely well thought out series of videos linked to the Philster Enigma system’s website (philsterholsters.com) that discusses the oft-not considered aspects of concealment. Everyone who carries a concealed firearm–or anything else–should consult them.

    It seems to me that there’d be a market for medium-sized pistols, such as mine above, chambered to 380 ACP for those, like me, an old man with bad shoulders and very poor hand and upper body strength, to allow even more recoil mitigation and easier operation. I’m not sure why they don’t already exist.

    Bottom line: For many people, a bigger, 9x19mm gun PROPERLY concealed is a better recommendation than small 380 pistols. Easier to manipulate, easier to hold onto, easier to manage recoil. If 9mm ballistics are imperative.

    Second, in the vein of the above, the Federal 30 Super Carry cartridge emerges as a viable alternative, I think. If a small gun is the recipe, apparently it’ll be easier to shoot and have less recoil. And tote more rounds. If a bigger, heavier gun, such as mine, is the ticket, it might well be a panacea chambering 30 SC: notably more rounds, notably less recoil, nearly 9mm performance at the target. Hmm…

    • Henry

      If you haven’t done so, you might want to try the S&W EZ line of .380s and 9mm. They are lower recoil and take less strength to operate than most others of the same calibers.

  67. Gideon Rockwell

    I have had a Walther PPK/s a number of years. My Springfield Hellcat is just a little larger, but with 124 grain H.P. defensive load has a lot more recoil. I love them both and at times still carry the Walther loaded with Hornady FTX Defensive Loads. I don’t feel under armed with the Walther. Low recoil and highly accurate with my chosen loads.

  68. Doug

    First off, I would like to say, I enjoyed your article. Being an instructor myself and read a lot of articles from many other instructors some good and some not so much. I would like to talk to you privately to discuss my views on many subjects, based on my experience and SF background. We were trained in real world gun fighting tactics. A lot of what I have seen over the years, would set people up for failure and might cause them to be killed if they used some of the training being taught by some of these schools. Again, I enjoyed the article, never stop in your pursuit of finding the answers to common solutions.

    • adams

      First off, I would like to say, I enjoyed your article. Being an instructor myself and read a lot of articles from many other instructors some good and some not so much. I would like to talk to you privately to discuss my views on many subjects, based on my experience and SF background. We were trained in real world gun fighting tactics. A lot of what I have seen over the years, would set people up for failure and might cause them to be killed if they used some of the training being taught by some of these schools. Again, I enjoyed the article, never stop in your pursuit of finding the answers to common solution

  69. Lorick

    Well written and absolutely matches my experience.
    A decade or so ago, I had been out of the US for about 8 years and had no chance to stay current. I arranged for a day with the Range Master at a LEO range. Asked if I should consider upgrading my current 9mm to .40. He response was close to verbatim of yours. I have a small hand. The Kahr MK-9 and SIG 239 single stack that I own work well. If I decide want something smaller, I will absolutely go with the .380 -> WHY? Because my when “shall issue was a fairly new concept (1995), I went out an bought a S&W titanium frame .38. I shot 20 rounds, my wrist hurt so badly, there was no way I could put 100 rounds through it. I could shoot my S&W Model 36 more accurately and indeed on the rare occasions I carried my Model 19 (357), I used carried .38+P because I was far more accurate.
    I would probably actually consider going back to something like a Model 36, although honestly, the MK9 is as easy to conceal.

  70. Ralph Martinsen

    Nice article. I must admit, I have been showing friends the difference between 9 and 380 and saying, if you feel comfortable enough, go with the 9. Then too, I need to borrow a 380 of the same mfg as my 9 for direct comparison. My bad. Several have stayed at 380, which I have supported, because I do say the best gun is the one you feel most comfortable handling.
    My results, 2 @ 9 and 2 @ 380. Of note ALL S&W EZ’s (their choice), all 65+, all ladies.

  71. Stephen Knepp

    In many self defense scenarios the perp has a knife, blunt object, or no weapon at all. ANY gun beats NO gun nearly every time.

  72. Mordecai

    I love my Beretta Cheetah in .380. I had a friend giving me grief about it. He declined my invitation to stand in front of it while I squeezed off a few rounds. Nuff said!

  73. Jim May

    When you compare guns of the same size you are mostly correct. Unfortunately most people (at least that I know) carry a much smaller .380 when they carry a .380. I have an LCP, very small .380. It has a short sight radius and because of it’s small size it beats you up when you shoot it. On the other hand, it disapears in a pocket (and holster) allowing one to be armed when otherwise it would not be possible. You pays your money and takes your chances. I almost always carry a 9mm (occasionally a .45) but there are occasion when the tiny .380 is the only choice.

  74. Daniel G Long

    007 used a .380!! I have 9 ‘s and a .40 but I really love my .380’s most as well as my .45/.410 derringers.

    • jd

      actually 007 carried first a Beretta .25 and then moved up to PPK .32ACP when “M” took away his .25.

  75. Bob Sikes

    I own two 380. They will get job done if I need them to. I own a nine which will work too. Only difference I find is ammo cost 9 mm is cheaper and more available. But 380 does work well for reasons pointed out in this article

  76. Jonathan Swift

    The first gun I bought was a Jimenez 380. I sold it after a few months. Then got a Walther PK-380 and a Walther P22, because I wanted a similar gun to train with using cheaper ammo. When my wife goes with me to the range, I only get to shoot the PK-380 when my wife is done. After shooting the Walther PK-380, I would never buy anything smaller.
    Trivia fact: “9mm Kurt” or “9mm Short” is the German name for 380 ACP.

  77. Clarence Cochran

    A very well written article, and one I happen to agree with 100%. Enough so that, for nearly 25 years, a Walther PPK/S in .380 was my CC Weapon. It was retired to Range Baby status only because of my aging eyes. I could no longer make out the sights in Low Light Drills. To this day, it remains the most accurate pistol in my modest collection. Capable of 1″ groups at 50′ across a rest. Not even my M9 is quite that good. With modern Defensivw Loads like the Fed Hydro-Shock, Speer Gold Dot Lawman, and my favorite the Hornady Critical Defense, the .380’s no slouch. I like the SIG P365 I’ve carried for the last 4 years, bit it took considerable effort on my part retraining myself to use it.

    For those that remain unimpressed by the .380, I always ask them to name me any other caliber responsible for starting a War. It’s not a 9mm or a .45. Two bullets from an FN Model 1910 ended the lives of Austria’s Archduke and his wife. The event that started the ball rolling for World War One.

  78. Pa John

    Do a YouTube search for the channel called “Active Self Protection”, or “A.S.P.” for short. They post videos of real world shootings of all types, be it car jackings or armed robberies or home invasions, police shootings and so on, and from all over the world, as recorded on security cams, dash cams, police body cams, videos captured by witnesses and so on. The narrator does a very good job of pointing out various lessons to be learned for the home / self defender. The point of posting this HERE, is that as you watch perhaps a few hundred of the countless real world shooting videos they’ve posted over the years, you will personally witness how very common it is for people who are shot with a handgun to initially not even slow down, and in many cases the bad guys can continue fighting for eternally long seeming seconds and minutes until they bleed out enough to finally get tired and have to sit down. There is no need to argue and reason and hypothesize about what we might or might not imagine would be the case: You can STUDY how real people actually reacted when they were initially shot with a handgun and you can do so for FREE right there on YouTube. The moral of the story is simply that regardless of what caliber handgun you carry, you do not want to be all shocked and taken off guard when the attacker you are forced into shooting just initially seems to just get even angrier over being shot, rather than instantly falling down and becoming completely motionless as is so often portrayed on TV and in the movies. Be prepared to shoot – and to continue shooting just as police are trained to do – as required until the threat is _stopped_…. Sometimes that first hit may not – initially – seem to have much desired effect at all, even in cases where that wound later proves to be mortal. Watch a bunch of real world shootings and see for yourself. You can afford free.

    • David

      The PPK originally used in the movies was a .32ACP.
      The PPK is small and dies not have a good purchase for bigger hands. Even my little size 9 hand will place the pinky below the pistol, losing purchase and making the pistol squirm some.

      The small plastic finger rest at bottom helps, but if the hand of the wielder is large, it will still be clumsy and uncomfortable.

      There’s a reason the movie guys went to the P99 in 9mm, simply easier and more comfortable to control.

  79. John

    My wife has problems with her hands and uses a .380 auto.
    I have it loaded with Black Hills Honey Badger ammo.

    • Sal

      It seems to be an excellent round especially for a short barreled pistol in which hollow points may not expand or if the target is wearing a heavy jacket. The Honey badger apparently penetrates well and opens up a wide wound without expansion.

  80. Roger

    Great comparison and advise…. Your handling and accuracy can do more to protect you then big bangs and poor accuracy which may not have a outcome in your favor….. I concur with what you stated……

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  81. Chris

    A friend gifted me a Glock 45 and a 380 Beretta 70s. Over time I came to severely dislike the 45 for it was bulky to handle and the recoil w intense. The 380, however, felt comfortable and smooth when I shot it. It wasn’t until years later and ran across this article that my decision to get rid of the 45 was cemented. While I traded it in for a 9mm and gifted it to my wife, I keep and trust my 380 for a myriad of reasons.

    This article was well written and I’ve passed out along to anyone I know interested in purchasing a gun to help them understand why bigger isn’t always better.